A full bibliography with hyperlinks for Democratizing Legal Services: Obstacles and Opportunities, appears below. The bibliography is also available with Zotero, at this link (public group). For access to the Zotero private group, please message me to request an invitation (the private group includes full access to attachments).


ABA Commission on Ethics 20/20. “ABA Commission on Ethics 20/20 Will Not Propose Changes to ABA Policy Prohibiting Nonlawyer Ownership of Law Firms.” April 16, 2012.

ABA Commission on the Evaluation of the Rules of Professional Conduct (‘Ethics 2000’). “Chair’s Introduction.” August 2002.

ABA Commission on Lawyer Assistance Programs. “Proposed Resolution Regarding Model Regulatory Objectives.” October 28, 2015.

ABA Commission on the Future of Legal Services, “For Comment: Issues Paper Concerning Unregulated LSP Entities.” March 31, 2016.

— “For Comment: Issues Paper Regarding Alternative Business Structures.” April 8, 2016.

— “Issues Paper Concerning New Categories of Legal Services Providers.” October 16, 2015.

ABA Commission On The Future Of Legal Services, Standing Committee On Professional Discipline Criminal Justice Section, Law Practice Division, Standing Committee On Legal Aid And Indigent Defendants, Standing Committee On Client Protection. “Report to the House of Delegates.” November, 2015.

ABA Resource Center for Access to Justice Initiatives. “Supreme Court Leadership on State Legislative Funding for Civil Legal Aid.” July 15, 2015.

ABA Standing Committee on the Delivery of Legal Services. “Issues on the Future of Legal Services.” December 2, 2014.

ABA Standing Committee on Legal Aid & Indigent Defendants. “Comments on Issues Paper on Alternative Business Structures.” May 5, 2016.

ABA Standing Committee on Professionalism. “Standing Committee on Professionalism Comment on Issues Paper Regarding Alternative Business Structures.” May 5, 2016.

The Advocates’ Society. Letter to the Law Society of Upper Canada’s Working Group on Alternative Business Structures. December 19, 2014.’%20Society.pdf.

American Bar Association. “ABA Mission and Goals.” Accessed February 11, 2016.

— “Constitution and Bylaws Rules of Procedure House of Delegates,” 2014-2015.

— “House of Delegates — General Information.” Accessed August 25, 2015.

— “Model Rules of Professional Conduct: Preface.” Accessed August 27, 2015.

— “Resolution 105.” February, 2016.

Adams, Edward S. and John H. Matheson. “Law Firms on the Big Board?: A Proposal for Nonlawyer Investment in Law Firms.” California Law Review 86 (1998): 1-40.

Ambrogi, Robert. “Washington State Moves Around UPL, Using Legal Technicians to Help Close the Justice Gap.” ABA Journal, January 1, 2015.

Antonelli, Mark R. “For Comment: Issues Paper Regarding Alternative Business Structures.” April 27, 2016.

“ArchCity Defenders Municipal Courts White Paper.” 2014.

Arentz, Oliver, Hans Manner, Leonard Münstermann, Clemens Recker and Steffen J. Roth. “Services Liberalisation in Germany Overview and the Potential of Deregulation: A Study by the Institute for Economic Policy at the University of Cologne.” Otto-Wolff-Discussion Paper 1b/2015, March 2015.

Arnold, Jens M., Beata S. Javorcik, and Aaditya Mattoo. “Does Services Liberalization Benefit Manufacturing Firms? Evidence from the Czech Republic.” Journal of International Economics 85 (2011): 136-146.

Associated Press. “Iowa Discipline Board Reprimands Attorney.”, August 31, 2014.

Attorney Registration & Disciplinary Commission. “Annual Report of 2015.” April 27, 2016.

Ayotte, Mike. “How Fixed Fees Are Going to Change BigLaw Forever.” The Last Honest Lawyer. August 28, 2013.

Balko, Radley. “How Municipalities in St. Louis County, Mo., Profit From Poverty.” Washington Post, September 3, 2014.

Barone, Guglielmo, and Federico Cingano. “Service Regulation and Growth: Evidence from OECD Countries.” The Economic Journal 121 (2011): 931-957.

Barton, Benjamin H. “An Institutional Analysis of Lawyer Regulation: Who Should Control Lawyer Regulation-Courts, Legislatures, or the Market?” Georgia Law Review 37 (2003): 1167-1250.

— “Do Judges Systematically Favor the Interests of the Legal Profession?” University of Tennessee Legal Studies Research Paper No. 1, 2007.

— “Economists on Deregulation of the American Legal Profession: Praise and Critique.” Michigan State Law Review 2011 (2011): 11-13.

— “The Lawyer’s Monopoly — What Goes and What Stays.” Fordham Law Review 82 (2014): 3067-90.

Bass, Julia H., W. A. Bogart, and Frederick H. Zemans. Access to Justice for a New Century: The Way Forward. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Law Society of Upper Canada, 2005.

Batlan, Felice. Women and Justice for the Poor: A History of Legal Aid, 1863-1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Beal Law Firm. “Comment in Opposition to Alternative Business Structures.” April 28, 2016.

Beck, Susan. “Divided ABA Adopts Resolution on Nonlawyer Legal Services.” The American Lawyer, February 8, 2016.

Beisner, John. “Comments of the US Chamber Institute for Legal Reform on the Issues Paper Concerning Alternative Business Structures.” June 1, 2011.

Benathen, Steve. “Non-Lawyers Owning Law Firms.” Illinois Business Law Journal, October 21, 2012.

Bennett, Daniel and Wesley Yin. “The Market for High-Quality Medicine: Retail Chain Entry and Drug Quality in India.” NBER Working Paper No. 20091, November 17, 2014.

Bennet, Paul. “Comment on Alternative Business Structures.” April 25, 2016.

Berndt, Lorne, Alycia Middleton, Christal Côté, Cheryl Sheffer, Tania Castonguay, Paula Callaghan, Denis Sabourin, Linda Schmidt, and Kayla Minor. “Alternative Business Structure Call For Input.” December 20, 2014.,%20Lorne%20and%20group.pdf.

Betke, Christopher G. “Proposal for ABS.” April 27, 2016.

Bindman, Dan. “ABSs Frustrated by Acquisition Targets That Are Either Not Ready or ‘Financial Basket Cases.’” Legal Futures, November 12, 2013.

— “Not-for-Profit’s Groundbreaking ABS Eyes Expansion.” Legal Futures, June 4, 2014.

Blakely, Susan Smith. “Why Do Women Lawyers Leave?” Ms. JD, April 24, 2014.

Blasi, Joseph R., Richard B. Freeman, and Douglas Kruse, The Citizen’s Share: Putting Ownership Back into Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013.

Bonn, Kristian. “The Future Law Firm: Lawyers in the Minority.” Boon Law, December 3, 2014.

Bourlès, Renaud, Gilbert Cette, Jimmy Lopez, Jacques Mairesse, and Giuseppe Nicoletti. “Do Product Market Regulations in Upstream Sectors Curb Productivity Growth? Panel Data Evidence for OECD Countries.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 95 (2013): 1750-1768. doi:10.1162/REST_a_00338.

Bourlès, Renaud, Gilbert Cette, Jimmy Lopez, Jacques Mairesse, and Giuseppe Nicoletti. “Do Product Market Regulations in Upstream Sectors Curb Productivity Growth? Panel Data Evidence For OECD Countries: Supplementary Web Appendix,” 2013.

Brittany L. McConniel v. State of Indiana, In the Court of Appeals of Indiana, Opinion for Publication. September 11, 2012.

Bronner, Ethan. “Right to Lawyer Can Be Empty Promise for Poor.” New York Times, March 15, 2013.

Brown, Chrissy. “How to Go From Citizen to Criminal in Under 10 Minutes.” Thoughts On Liberty, July 23, 2013.

Brown, Toby. “The Legal Profession is Doomed.” 3 Geeks and a Law Blog. February 10, 2015.

Caldwell, J. Richard, Jr. “Report on ‘Alternative Business Structures.’” April 29, 2016.

Campbell, Ray Worthy. “Rethinking Regulation and Innovation in the US Legal Services Market.” New York University Journal of Law & Business 9 (2012): 1-70.

Campos, Paul. “The Collapsing Economics of Solo Legal Practice.” Lawyers, Guns & Money. May 25, 2015.

Canton, Erik, Daria Ciriaci and Irune Solera. “The Economic Impact of Professional Services Liberalisation.” European Commission Economic Papers 533, September 2014.

Carter, Terry. “Judges Say Litigants Are Increasingly Going Pro Se— At Their Own Peril.” ABA Journal, July 12, 2010.–at_their_own_/.

Catholic Charities Archdiocese of Washington. “Catholic Charities Legal Network Annual Report 2015.”

— “Immigration Legal Services.” Accessed April 25, 2016.

CBA Legal Futures Initiative. “Futures: Transforming the Delivery of Legal Services in Canada.” August, 2014.

Centre for Innovative Justice. “Affordable Justice — A Pragmatic Path to Greater Flexibility and Access in the Private Legal Services Market.” October 2013.

Cette, Gilbert, Jimmy Lopez, and Jacques Mairesse. “Product and Labour Market Regulations: Production Prices, Wages and Productivity.” NBER Working Paper No. w20563, 2014.

Chadderton,Sam. “Crash Course to Success.” The Lawyer, February 4, 2013.

Chambliss, Elizabeth and David B. Wilkins. “A New Framework for Law Firm Discipline.” Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 16 (2002): 335-351.

Chandler, Mark, Charles J. Kalil, Thomas L. Sager, Brackett B. Denniston III, Robert C. Weber, A. Douglas Melamed, Glenn E. Bost II, Randal S. Milch, and Frank R. Jimenez.  “Comments of Nine General Counsel on the ABA Commission on Ethics 20/20’s Discussion Paper on Alternative Law Practice Structures.” February 29, 2012.

Chanen, Jill Schachner. “Early Exits.” ABA Journal, August 6, 2006,

Chaserant, Camille and Sophie Harnay. “The Regulation of Quality in the Market for Legal Services: Taking the Heterogeneity of Legal Services Seriously.” The European Journal of Comparative Economics 10 (2013) 267-291.

Cheng, David. “Why So Many Lawyers Are Unhappy with Their Jobs.” Business Insider, August 29, 2013.

Christensen, Clayton and Mark Johnson. “What Are Business Models, and How Are They Built?” 2010.

Clarke, Brian S. “Law Professors, Law Students and Depression . . . A Story of Coming Out.” Journal of Law 4 (2014): 219-234.,%20TP4-2,%20Clarke.pdf.

Clearwater, Karen. “President’s Report: The Map Followed…” The Law Society of Manitoba Communiqué 2.0. May, 2015, 1.

Clementi, Sir David. “Report of the Review of the Regulatory Framework for Legal Services in England and Wales.” December, 2004. Accessed August 20, 2015.

Clifton, William W., Jr. “ABA Commission on the Fuiture [sic] of Legal Services Report.” April 28, 2016.

Columbia Law School Human Rights Institute and Northeastern University School of Law Program on Human Rights and the Global Economy. “Equal Access to Justice: Ensuring Meaningful Access to Counsel in Civil Cases, Including Immigration Proceedings — Response to the Seventh and Ninth Periodic Reports of the United States to the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.” July, 2014.

Commission d’Etude des Effets de la Loi Pour la Croissance et l’Activité. “Réformes des Professions Réglementées du Droit.” January, 2015.

Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor. Making the Law Work for Everyone, Volume I: Report of the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor. New Jersey: Toppan Printing Company America, 2008.

Making the Law Work for Everyone, Volume II: Working Group Reports. New Jersey: Toppan Printing Company America, 2008.—vol-ii—english-only/making_the_law_work_II.pdf.

“Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief.” Jacoby & Meyers Law Offices LLP v. the Justices of the Supreme Court of New Jersey, May 18, 2011.

“Complaint.” Michele Burke Craddock v. LeClairRyan. In the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, January 6, 2016.

Conference of Chief Justices and Conference of State Court Administrators. “The Importance of Funding for the Legal Services Corporation from the Perspective of the Conference of Chief Justices and the Conference of State Court Administrators.”  2012.

— “Resolution 1: In Support of Continued Federal Funding for the Legal Services Corporation.” February 1, 2012.

— “Resolution 1: In Support of Continued Federal Funding for the Legal Services Corporation.” July 25, 2012.

— “Resolution 11: In Support of Increased Federal Funding For the Legal Services Corporation.” August, 2009.

— “Resolution 4: In Support of the Statement of Best Practices for State Funding of Civil Legal Aid Prepared by the ABA Resource Center for Access to Justice Initiatives.” 2015.

— “Resolution 7: In Support of State Supreme Court Leadership in Increasing Funding for Civil Legal Assistance.” July 28, 2010.

— “Resolution 7: Reaffirming the Critical Importance of Adequate Funding of the Legal Services Corporation.” 2015.

— “Resolution 9: In Support of Continued Funding for the Legal Services Corporation Commensurate with Its Vital Role in the Administration of Justice.” January 24, 2002.

— “Resolution 9: In Support of the Federal Funding Legal Services Corporation.” August 3, 2011.

— “Resolution 9: Recommending Consideration of ABA Model Regulatory Objectives for the Provision of Legal Services.” February 3, 2016.

Corsmeier, Joseph A. “Ethics Alert — Iowa Supreme Court Reprimands Lawyer who Billed Corporate Client for Costs of Sanctions Which ‘Resulted From His Own Lack of Diligence and Communication.’” Lawyer Ethics Alert Blogs, September 5, 2014.

Corugedo, Emilio Fernández, and Esther Pérez Ruiz. “The EU Services Directive: Gains from Further Liberalization.” IMF Working Paper No. 14/113. July, 2014.

The County & District Law Presidents’ Association. “CDLPA’s Response to the Discussion Paper on Alternative Business Structures: The Voice of the Practising Lawyer in Ontario.” n.d.’%20Association%20(CDLPA).pdf.

Council for Licensed Conveyancers. “ABSs Leading the Way on Information Technology.” CLC Blog. April 13, 2016.

Coyle, Jim. “A New Model of Attorney Regulation?” Colorado Supreme Court. Fall, 2015.

Creamer, Robert A. “Get Ready for Illinois’ New Rules of Professional Conduct.” Illinois Bar Journal 97 (October 2009): 500.

Cross, Robert. “Balancing Regulatory Risk.” Presentation at UCL International Access to Justice Conference, London, England, June 20, 2014.

Daicoff, Susan Swaim. Lawyer, Know Thyself. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2004.

Dempster, Michael. “The Hurting Profession.” National, April-May 2012, 12-20,

Denckla Derek A. “Nonlawyers and the Unauthorized Practice of Law: An Overview of the Legal and Ethical Parameters.” Fordham Law Review 67 (1999): 2581-2599.

Devlin, Edward. “Hacking Ashton Partners Set for Shortfall.” Insider Media, December 9, 2013.

Devlin, Richard and Ora Morison. “Access to Justice and the Ethics and Politics of Alternative Business Structures.” The Canadian Bar Review 91 (2012): 483-553.

Dewan, Shaila. “A Surreptitious Courtroom Video Prompts Changes in a Georgia Town.” New York Times, September 4, 2015.

Dinovitzer, Ronit. “Law and Beyond: A National Study of Canadian Law Graduates,” May 27, 2015.

Dodek, Adam M. “Regulating Law Firms in Canada.” Canadian Bar Review 90 (2012): 383-440.

Domberger, Simon and Avrom Sherr, “The Impact of Competition on Pricing and Quality of Legal Services.” International Review of Law and Economics 9 (1989): 41-56.

“[Draft] Regulatory Objectives of the Supreme Court of Colorado.” November 12, 2015.

DRI – The Voice of the Defense Bar. “Issues Paper Regarding Alternative Business Structures.” May 4, 2016.

Duesterberg, Thomas J. and Donald A. Norman. “Why Is Capital Investment Consistently Weak in the 21st Century Economy?” April, 2015.

Duroni, Lance. “US Law Firms Still Flirting with Going Public.” Law 360, July 15, 2015.

Dyck, Karen. “Innovating Regulation on the Prairies.” Slaw, January 20, 2016.

Dzienkowski, John S. and Robert J. Peroni. “Multidisciplinary Practice and the American Legal Profession: A Market Approach to Regulating the Delivery of Legal Services in the Twenty-First Century.” Fordham Law Review 69 (2000): 83-207.

Eliades, Paris P. “Testimony to the ABA Commission on the Future of Legal Services.” February 7, 2015.

Ellis, Christian. “Comment on Future of Legal Services.” April 28, 2016.

EPP Group in the European Parliament. “EPP Group Policy Paper: Five Building Blocks for Growth and Jobs.” February 23, 2015.

Equity Advisory Group Working Group on Alternative Business Structures. Memo to the Law Society of Upper Canada’s Working Group on Alternative Business Structures. January 21, 2015.

Evans, Dale B. “Why Lawyers Can’t Manage.” Law Practice Management 19 (October, 1993): 26.

Ezell, Stephen J. and Robert D. Atkinson. “Fifty Ways to Leave Your Competitiveness Woes Behind: A National Traded Sector Competitiveness Strategy.” September, 2012.

Facebook, Inc. “Remembering Lauren McConniel, 10/3/2004 – 03/09/2010.” Accessed May 21, 2016.

Falker, Greg B., and Charles Weiss, Jr. “An Analytic Framework for Measuring Technological Development.” In The Emerging Technological Trajectory of the Pacific Rim, edited by Denis Fred Simon, 385-400. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Forlani, Emanuele. “Competition in the Service Sector and the Performances of Manufacturing Firms: Does Liberalization Matter?” CESifo Working Paper Series No. 2942, February, 2010.

Fortney, Susan Saab. “Promoting Public Protection through an ‘Attorney Integrity’ System: Lessons from the Australian Experience with Proactive Regulation of Lawyers.” The Professional Lawyer 23 (2015): 1-12.

— “The Role of Ethics Audits in Improving Management Systems and Practices: An Empirical Examination of Management-Based Regulation of Law Firms.” St. Mary’s Journal on Legal Malpractice and Ethics 4 (2015): 112-149.

Forum on the Entertainment and Sports Law Industries. “ABA Commission on the Future of Legal Services — Issues Paper on Alternative Business Structures/Comments Requested.” May 3, 2016.

Fouzder, Monidipa. “SRA Says ‘Sorry’ Over ABS Application Delays.” The Law Society Gazette, April 21, 2015.

Fox, Lawrence J. “What Would Bob MacCrate Think?” 2016.

“Framework Document: Agreement between the Ministry of Justice and the Legal Services Board.” June, 2011.

Freeman, Steven F. “Effects of ESOP Adoption and Employee Ownership: Thirty Years of Research and Experience.” Organizational Dynamics Programs Working Paper #07-01. January 4, 2007.

Friedman, Ken. “Could Dental-Board Decision Unlock Lawyer Control of State Bar Regulations?” Forbes, March 4, 2015.

Gallivan, Henry Mills. “ABA Proposal on Alternative Business Structures.” April 28, 2016.

“Gateley Set to Raise £30m from AIM Listing, as Slater and Gordon’s Acquisition of Quindell Completes.” Legal Futures, May 29, 2015.

Gehl, Nicholas E. Letter to the Law Society of Upper Canada’s Working Group on Alternative Business Structures. December 9, 2014.,%20Nicholas.pdf.

Gibeaut, John. “’It’s a Done Deal’: House of Delegates Vote Crushes Chances for MDP.” ABA Journal 9 (2000): 92-93.

Gluckman, Neil. “Complaint Alleges Gender Discrimination at LeClairRyan.” The American Lawyer, January 7, 2016.

Goldfinger Personal Injury Law. “Alternative Business Structures and the Legal Profession in Ontario.” Toronto Injury Lawyer Blog, April 16, 2015.

Gordon, Tahlia, and Steve Mark. “Access to Justice: Can You Invest in It?” April, 2015. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3820.1760.

Gordon, Thomas M. “Comments on: Alternative Law Practice Structures.” January 30, 2012.

— “Comments on: Civil Justice Strategies Task Force ‘New Group’ Draft Recommendations.” May 11, 2015.

— “Comments on: Issues Paper on the Future of Legal Services.” December 10, 2014.

— “Comments On: Issues Paper Regarding Alternative Business Structures.” May 2, 2016.

— “Testimony On: Allowing Innovation to Meet Unmet Legal Needs.” September 27, 2013.

— “Comments on: Alternative Business Structures.” May 31, 2011.

Gotham City Research, LLC. “Quindell PLC: A Country Club Built on Quicksand.” April, 2014.

Grady, Kenneth. Video Testimony to the ABA Commission on the Future of Legal Services. February, 2015.

Granat, Richard. “Is Axiom Law a Law Firm?” eLawyering Blog, April 8, 2013.

Greacen, John M. “Services for Self-Represented Litigants in Arkansas: A Report to the Arkansas Access to Justice Commission.” July 26, 2013.

Grech, Andrew and Kristen Morrison. “Slater and Gordon: The Listing Experience.” Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 22 (2009): 535-540.

Grech, Andrew and Tahlia Gordon. “Modern Law Firm Management: Should Non-Lawyer Ownership Be Endorsed and Encouraged?” Working Paper, April 2015.

Grossman, Leonard R. “Alternative Business Structure Proposal of the ABA.” May 2, 2016.

Haddad, Sam. “Shine Corporation (SHJ): Significant Growth for Well into the Future.” Bell Potter Analyst Report, March 16, 2015.

Hadfield, Gillian and Larry Fox, “Regulating the Future Delivery of Legal Services.” Webinar, 39:45.

Hadfield, Gillian K. and Jamie Heine. “Life in the Law-Thick World: The Legal Resource Landscape for Ordinary Americans.” USC CLASS Research Papers Series No. CLASS15-2; USC Law Legal Studies Paper No. 15-2. January 9, 2015.

Hadfield, Gillian K., and Deborah L. Rhode. “How to Regulate Legal Services to Promote Access, Innovation, and the Quality of Lawyering.” Hastings Law Journal, Forthcoming; USC CLASS Research Papers Series No. CLASS16-6; USC Law Legal Studies Paper No. 16-7 (2016).

Hadfield, Gillian. “Innovating to Improve Access: Changing the Way Courts Regulate Legal Markets.” Daedalus 143 (2014): 83-95.

— “Legal Barriers to Innovation: The Growing Economic Cost of Professional Control Over Corporate Legal Markets.” Stanford Law Review 60 (2008): 101-146.

— “Legal Infrastructure and the New Economy.” I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society 8 (2012): 1-59.

— “The Cost of Law: Promoting Access to Justice through the (Un)Corporate Practice of Law.” International Review of Law and Economics 38 (2014): 43-63.

Hasselback, Drew. “Why That Proposal to Let Non-Lawyers Own Canadian Law Firms Is Probably Toast.” Financial Post, August 12, 2015.

Hellier,David. “Slater & Gordon Targeted by Aggrieved Investors for Potential Class Action.” The Guardian, February 29, 2016.

Henderson, William D. “A Blueprint for Change.” Pepperdine Law Review 40 (2013): 461-507.

Herman, Dan and Anthony D. Williams. “Driving Canadian Growth and Innovation: Five Challenges Holding Back Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Canada.” May, 2013.

Hilborne, Nick “Gove Poised to Back Call for Less Overbearing Regulatory Regime for ABSs.” Legal Futures, November 19, 2015.

— “My ‘Bog Standard Law Firm’ Has Become a ‘Roll-Out Specialist’, Says High Street ABS Chief.” Legal Futures, November 20, 2015.

— “Slater and Gordon Tight-Lipped as Australian Law Firms Recruit Shareholders for Group Actions.” Legal Futures, December 24, 2015.

— “COLPs Failing to Report Problems to SRA, Groundbreaking Study Finds.” Legal Futures. March 3, 2016.

— “Separation Would be Better for Both of Us, SRA Leaders Tell Law Society.” Legal Futures, December 3, 2015.

Hill, Benjamin H., III. “Non-Lawyer Ownership of Law Firms.” April 25, 2016.

Hodges, Silvia. “I Didn’t Go to Law School to Become a Salesperson — The Development of Marketing in Law Firms.” Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics, 26 (2013): 225-260.

Hoffman, David A. and Richard N. Wolman. “Multidisciplinary Practice: Three-Dimensional Client Service.” Massachusetts Psychological Association Quarterly. Summer 2004.

Holderman, Paula Hudson. “Commentary on the report from the ABA’s Commission on the Future of Legal Services.” April 27, 2016.

Hubbard, William C. “Remarks of William C. Hubbard, President of the American Bar Association.” Presentation to Meeting of American College of Trial Lawyers, Miami, Florida, February 28, 2015.–hubbard/american-college-of-trial-lawyers–february-2015-.html.

Hurst, James Willard Hurst. The Growth of American Law: The Law Makers. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950.

Iacobucci, Edward M. and Michael J. Trebilcock. “An Economic Analysis of Alternative Business Structures for the Practice of Law.” Paper presented at the Law Society of Upper Canada’s symposium for the Alternative Business Structures, October 4, 2013.

“ILH Group Ltd Says Sale of Eaton Capital Partners.” Reuters, August 15, 2014.

Illinois State Bar Association. “Issues Paper Regarding Alternative Business Structures: Request for Comments.” 2016.

Illinois Supreme Court. “Supreme Court Adopts New Rules of Professional Conduct for Lawyers.” July 1, 2009.

Ghitter, Cori, Shabnam Datta, Barbra Bailey and Darcia Senft. “Innovating Regulation: A Collaboration of the Prairie Law Societies.” November, 2015.

In re Co-operative Law Co. 198 NY 479 (CA NY 1910).

International Association of Defense Counsel. “ABA Commission on the Future of Legal Services – Alternative Business Structures.” May 3, 2016.

Iowa Supreme Court Attorney Disciplinary Board v. Cameron A. Davdison. Order of Public Reprimand no. 14-0878. August 18, 2014.

ISBA/CBA Joint Committee on Ethics 2000. “Revised Final Report.” January 8, 2004 (Corrected April 1, 2004).

Jackson, Liane. “Minority Women are Disappearing from BigLaw — and Here’s Why.” ABA Journal, March 1, 2016.

Jogal, Anastasia. “Less Than Half of All Law Grads Find Work After Call: Survey.” Canadian Lawyer Magazine, January 11, 2016.

Johnson, Carrie. “Rights Advocates See ‘Access to Justice’ Gap in U.S.” NPR, March 10, 2014.

Johnson, Gene. “Washington Experiments with More Affordable Legal Advice.” Seattle Times, September 27, 2015.

Jones, Ashby. “In Down Times, Depression Taking Hold Among More Lawyers.” Wall Street Journal, May 5, 2009.

Juetten, Mary. “Technology and the Unauthorized Practice of Law.” Law Technology Today. June 12, 2015.

Jüriloo, Kristel. “Free Legal Aid — A Human Right.” Nordic Journal of Human Rights 33 (2015): 203-219.

Kalajdzic, Jasminka. “Memo to Linda Langston of the Ontario Trial Lawyers Association.” December 1, 2014.

Katz, Dan.Video “Innovation in the Legal Services Industry — The Future is Already Here, It is Just *Not* Evenly Distributed.” Posted October 2, 2013.

Kay, Fiona M., Stacey Alarie, and Jones Adjei. “Leaving Law and Barriers to Re-entry: A Study of Departures from and Re-entries to Private Practice.” A Report to the Law Society of Upper Canada, April 2013,

Kelly, Michael. “Ethical Issues Associated with Multidisciplinary Practices in Texas.” Saint Mary’s Law Journal 41 (2010): 733-777.

Kidd, Kenneth. “Woman’s Fight Opens Legal Titans’ Secret Files.” The Star, September 3, 2009.

Kim, E. Han and Paige Ouimet. “Broad-Based Employee Stock Ownership: Motives and Outcomes.” The Journal of Finance 69 (2014): 1273-1319. doi:10.1111/jofi.12150.

King, Ann. “North Staffordshire Law Firm Hacking Ashton Closes Down.” The Sentinel, October 2, 2013.

Knake, Renee Newman. “Democratizing the Delivery of Legal Services,” Ohio State Law Journal 73 (2012): 1-46.

Koba, Mark. “No New Lawyers! Economy Can’t Handle Them.” The Fiscal Times, March 21, 2013.

Koppel, Nathan. “More Strapped Litigants Skip Lawyers in Court.” Wall Street Journal, July 22, 2010.

Koske, Isabell, Isabelle Wanner, Rosamaria Bitetti, and Omar Barbiero. “The 2013 Update of the OECD’s Database on Product Market Regulation: Policy Insights For OECD and Non-OECD Countries.” OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 1200, March 31, 2015.

Kowalski, Mitch. “Anti-ABS Arguments Continue to Be Based on Emotion — Not Fact.” Slaw, December 30, 2014.

— “Entity Regulation Comes to Canada.” Financial Post, February 23, 2016.

— “Why One Scandal Shouldn’t Doom a New Twist on Law Firm Ownership.” Financial Post, August 17, 2015.

Krill, Patrick R., Ryan Johnson, and Linda Albert. “The Prevalence of Substance Use and Other Mental Health Concerns Among American Attorneys.” Journal of Addictive Medicine 10 (2016): 46-52. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000182.

Krill, Patrick. “Why Lawyers are Prone to Suicide.” CNN, January 21, 2014.

Krischer Goodman, Cindy. “Why Aren’t Women Lawyers Reaching the Top of Their Firms in Pay and Respect?” Miami Herald, April 12, 2012.

Lachance, Colin. “ABS D.O.A? Idk.” Slaw, February 6, 2015.

Lampel, Joseph and Ajay Bhalla, “How Employee-Owned Businesses Deliver Sustainable Performance in the UK?” January 28, 2015.

Lampel, Joseph, Ajay Bhalla, Mridula Chordia, and Pushkar. P. Jha. “Does Employee Ownership Confer Long-Term Resilience? A Follow-Up Study to ‘Model Growth: Do Employee Owned Businesses Provide Sustainable Advantage?’” January 14, 2014.

Langan, Martin. Video “Martin Langan — AI Law.” Reinvent Law Channel. 2013.

Law Firm Regulation Task Force. “Law Firm Regulation Consultation Brief.” October 26, 2015.

The Law Societies of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. “Alternative Business Structures.” Accessed May 16, 2016.

— “Innovating Regulation.” Accessed May 16, 2016.

The Law Society of British Columbia. “Law Firm Regulation – Consultation.” Accessed March 4, 2016,

— “Law Firm Regulation Consultation: FAQs.” n.d.

— “Law Firm Regulation Consultation, Phase Two.” January 28, 2016.

The Law Society of Manitoba. “Innovating Regulation: Collaboration on the Prairies.” Accessed February 1, 2016.

The Law Society of Upper Canada Compliance-Based Entity Regulation Task Force. “Call for Input Consultation Paper: ‘Promoting Better Legal Practices.’” January 2016.

— “Report to Convocation.” December 4, 2015.

The Law Society of Upper Canada Professional Regulation Committee. “Report to Convocation.” September 24, 2015.

The Law Society of Upper Canada. “Compliance-Based Entity Regulation.” Accessed February 2, 2016.

Lawyers’ Assistance Program. “The Happy Lawyer: The Path from Stress to Well-Being,” Presentation for Continuing Legal Education Credit, April 13, 2015, on file with author.

Lee, Keith. “What’s Worse than Billing a Client for Bottled Water? Billing Them for Sanctions.” Above the Law, September 5, 2014.

Leech, William M. “Comment: Issues Paper Regarding Alternative Business Structures April 8, 2016.” May 2, 2016.

Legal Action Group. “Legal Aid’s 2015 Roll Call of Honour.” June, 2015.

Legal Ombudsman. “Annual Report and Accounts for the Year Ending 31 March 2015.” January 28, 2016.

Legal Services Board. “Evaluation: Changes in Competition in Different Legal Markets — An Empirical Analysis.” October, 2013.

— “Evaluation: How Can We Measure Access to Justice for Individual Consumers? A Discussion Paper.” September 2012.

— “LSB Framework Document.” Accessed August 22, 2015.

Legal Services Consumer Panel. “Consumer Impact Report 2014.” December 5, 2014.

Legal Services Corporation. “Documenting the Justice Gap in America — The Current Unmet Civil Legal Needs of Low-Income Americans: An Updated Report of the Legal Services Corporation.” September, 2009.

Leslie, Richard M. “Nonlawyer Ownership of Law Firms.” May 1, 2016.

Li, Victor. “Board Members Quit, Blast Washington State Bar in Fight over UPL, Legal Technicians.” ABA Journal, November 9, 2015.

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